Nanostructures from CMOS processing to plastic consumer products
The principles behind nanoimprint lithography (NIL) have been known for centuries, and while it was re-discovered as a high-tech lithography technique in Japan in the 1970s, it is not until in the middle of the 1990s that the potential of a contact lithography technique for sub-100 nm structures was considered a serious contender for CMOS and other high tech applications. The early target applications of hard discs, CMOS and LEDs drove the technology development, and influenced NIL to enter the important International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) it is now twenty years later evident that NIL is not going to revolutionise the CMOS manufacturing, although there are still serious work going on with solid state memory applications, NIL is excellent in other application areas. Today NIL is widely used within biotech, medico, displays, and NILT is pioneering work where NIL is taken out of the flat world and are addressing free form surfaces. In the presentation NIL will be put into a short historic content and the latest work on combining nanoimprint and injection moulding to make novel free form bulk plastic products benefit from nano-structure functionalised surfaces.